Джэрмэн

Къыздихар Уикипедиэ
Мыбы кӀуэн: навигацэ, лъыхъуэн

Germany From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany (disambiguation) and Deutschland (disambiguation). "Federal Republic of Germany" redirects here. For the country from 1949–1990, see West Germany. Coordinates: 51°N 9°E

Federal Republic of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a] Flag of Germany Flag Coat of arms of Germany Coat of arms Motto: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom" Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany" MENU0:00

Location of  Germany  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)

Location of Germany (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green) Capital and largest city Berlin[c] 52°31′N 13°23′E Official language and national language German[1][d] Ethnic groups (2015[2]) 79.0% Germans 11.0% Other Europeans 7.0% Asians —2.3% Middle Eastern —3.5% Turks 0.8% Africans 0.5% Americans 1.7% unspecified Religion 59.3% Christianity 34.4% Not religious 5.5% Islam 0.8% Other religions[3] Demonym German Government Federal constitutional parliamentary republic • President Frank-Walter Steinmeier • Chancellor Angela Merkel • President of the Bundestag Norbert Lammert • President of the Bundesrat Malu Dreyer • President of the Federal Constitutional Court Andreas Voßkuhle Legislature • Upper house Bundesrat • Lower house Bundestag Area • Total 357,168 km2 (137,903 sq mi) (62nd) Population • 2015 estimate Increase 82,175,700[4] (16th) • Density 227/km2 (587.9/sq mi) (58th) GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate • Total $3.980 trillion[5] (5th) • Per capita $48,111[5] (18th) GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate • Total $3.467 trillion[5] (4th) • Per capita $41,902[5] (17th) Gini (2014) Negative increase 30.7[6] medium HDI (2015) Increase 0.926[7] very high · 4th Currency Euro (€) (EUR) Time zone CET (UTC+1) • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2) Drives on the right Calling code 49 ISO 3166 code DE Internet TLD .de and .eu Germany (/ˈdʒɜːrməni/ (About this sound listen); German: Deutschland, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland, About this sound listen (help·info)),[e][8] is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.[9][10] Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Dortmund and Essen. The country's other major cities are Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Bremen, Dresden, Hannover and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.[11] During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. The German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. In 1933 the Nazi seizure of power quickly led to the establishment of Nazi Germany which was built upon a dictatorship and consequently led to World War II and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the democratic West Germany and the socialist East Germany. Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990.[12] In the 21st century, Germany is a great power with a strong economy; it has the world's 4th largest economy by nominal GDP, and the 5th largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. It is a developed country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled and productive society. It upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, and a tuition-free university education.[13] The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7 (formerly G8), the G20, and the OECD. The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, philosophers, musicians, sportspeople, entrepreneurs, scientists, engineers, and inventors. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Germanic tribes and Frankish Empire 2.2 East Francia and Holy Roman Empire 2.3 German Confederation and Empire 2.4 Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany 2.5 East and West Germany 2.6 Reunified Germany and European Union 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 3.3 Urbanisation 4 Politics 4.1 Law 4.2 Constituent states 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military 5 Economy 5.1 Companies 5.2 Transport 5.3 Energy and infrastructure 5.4 Science and technology 5.5 Tourism 6 Demographics 6.1 Immigrant population 6.2 Religion 6.3 Languages 6.4 Education 6.5 Health 7 Culture 7.1 Music 7.2 Art 7.3 Architecture 7.4 Literature and philosophy 7.5 Media 7.6 Cinema 7.7 Cuisine 7.8 Sports 7.9 Fashion and design 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links